Most popular experts discuss what ancient Chinese

2022-08-05
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Experts discuss China's ancient machinery: what does "Mu Niu Liu Ma" look like

(original title: is Zhang Heng's seismograph, which "disappeared" from the textbook, really a "fake"

how was the hanging coffin sent to the cliff in ancient times? Is Zhang Heng seismograph, which is controversial and deleted from textbooks, really a "fake"? Apart from the "four great inventions", was there any science and technology in ancient China? What does the mysterious "wooden ox and flowing horse" look like

on January 10, the publication seminar of the research on the restoration of ancient Chinese machinery was held in Beijing Weijing international hotel. Zhangbaichun, director of the Institute of the history of natural sciences of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and academician of the International Academy of the history of science, fenglisheng, director of the Institute of the history of science and ancient literature of Tsinghua University and academician of the International Academy of the history of science, Liubing, Professor of the school of Social Sciences of Tsinghua University, and wangyifang, Professor of the Institute of medical humanities of Peking University, Dai Wusan, a professor of the Shenzhen Graduate School of Tsinghua University, and sun lie, a researcher of the Institute of natural science history of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and other industry experts jointly discussed the "ancient mechanical civilization"

the publication seminar of the research on the restoration of ancient Chinese machinery takes "reproducing the ancient Chinese mechanical civilization" as the theme

Joseph Needham once listed 26 outstanding inventions in ancient China. People often think of the "four great inventions" when referring to ancient Chinese science and technology, but they are often unknown beyond the "four great inventions". Besides the "four great inventions", is there any science and technology in China? The answer, of course, is yes. So, what is the development level of ancient Chinese science and technology in the world

lujingyan, a famous historian of science and technology, pointed out in his book research on the restoration of ancient Chinese machinery that Chinese science and technology began to enter the advanced ranks in the Qin and Han Dynasties, and there were many important scientific and technological achievements in this stage. The moving distance of the super workbench was no less than 1500mm, which was greater than any previous period, such as the bronze chariots and horses of the Qin mausoleum, the guide chariot, the Ji Li drum chariot, the three legged columbine, the unicycle, the incense burner, the fan chariot, the keel waterwheel Flat loom, seismograph, water conservancy astronomical instrument - hunxiang, etc. Lujingyan believed that the time when China's science and technology was in the advanced ranks should be counted from the bronze chariots and horses of the Qin mausoleum

the bronze chariots and horses unearthed from the Qin mausoleum in the 1980s are lifelike in shape, beautiful in shape, complex and perfect in structure, showing the high scientific and technological level and manufacturing technology of the Qin Dynasty

since when has China's science and technology ceased to be advanced? Lujingyan said that the time when China's science and technology withdrew from the advanced ranks was about the middle and late Ming Dynasty, that is, the century. During this period, the West was on the eve of the industrial revolution that changed the face of the world, and the progress of science and technology was very obvious. From the middle and late Ming Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty, the level of science and technology in Europe on the whole had surpassed that in China, which on the other hand proved that the situation of advanced science and technology in China had ended

Lu Jingyan pointed out in his book that China was one of the first countries in the world to use and develop machinery. In history, China's machinery technology has long been a world leader, and has made a series of remarkable achievements in agriculture, metallurgy, textiles, vehicles and ships, military, astronomy, drilling and other fields. Joseph Needham, a British scholar, listed 26 kinds of outstanding inventions in ancient China in the general introduction of his great work the history of science and technology in China, and pointed out that these outstanding inventions were used in Europe several centuries to more than ten centuries later than in China. Among the 26 inventions, 12 belong to the category of machinery, and the other 10 are more or less related to machinery. It is no exaggeration to say that ancient Chinese machinery is an important part of ancient science and technology. The brilliance of ancient Chinese machinery technology, its types, oil changing hours and rich connotation, has a great impact on the development of science and technology in China and even the world

Joseph Needham, a British scholar

at the seminar, wenzeyuan, President of Shanghai Science and Technology Press, introduced to the guests the original intention and process of the publication of the study on the restoration of ancient Chinese machinery. He said that in fact, the Chinese people do not know much about these outstanding achievements in ancient China, or even very little about them. "Research on the restoration of ancient Chinese machinery" vividly reproduces the overall appearance of the ancient Chinese mechanical technology civilization. By restoring the mechanical production achievements in different periods, more readers can understand the context of the development of ancient Chinese science and technology, reveal its development track and rise and fall process, and then understand the social, political and economic conditions at that time

zhangbaichun also affirmed the significance and extraordinary value of this work. He said that the restoration of ancient Chinese machinery cost a lot of manpower and material resources, and the results were slow. In the past, few people engaged in this research work. There are a large number of gaps in this academic garden, and few monographs on restoration research. However, Lu Jingyan has never given up his goal of writing a complete history of Chinese mechanical engineering. He has successively written Chinese ancient weapons, the history of Chinese science and technology · machinery volume, the history of Chinese machinery and other works

zhangbaichun said that as a monograph on the history of technology, research on the restoration of ancient Chinese machinery combines ancient literature records, archaeological data and field investigation to study and restore the history of technology of machinery. It not only inherits Mr. liuxianzhou's research methods on the history of machinery, but also develops the research on the restoration of ancient science and technology initiated by Mr. Wang Zhenduo and others. "In many years of scientific research work, Professor lujingyan has surveyed the ancient plank road in the southwest, restored the wooden cattle and horses in combination with the actual situation; lifted the hanging coffin in Guixi, Jiangxi Province to solve the mystery of the ages; carefully studied the ancient books and documents, restored and made a variety of military machinery... Nearly 100 kinds of about 150 large and small models he has made show the wisdom and ingenuity of our ancestors, and reproduce the ancient Chinese technological civilization."

how was the hanging coffin sent to the cliff in ancient times

the hanging coffin originated in Wuyi Mountain and its surrounding areas, which is considered a mystery for thousands of years. How did the hanging coffin get to the cliff in ancient times? Lu Jingyan pointed out in his book "Research on the restoration of ancient Chinese machinery" that according to the records of ancient books and on-the-spot investigation, it was determined that the hanging coffin did not rely on the power of God or nature, but was a lifting engineering problem in ancient times, and summarized four methods for raising the hanging coffin: lifting method, stacking method, earth stacking method and water rising method. Among them, the lifting method is the most widely used, and the stack method must have a certain plank road foundation. The use of soil stacking method is limited, and the use of flood method is less. However, no matter what method is used, it is necessary to combine lifting and transportation. So, what is the equipment used to lift the hanging coffin? Lujingyan wrote in his book that the equipment used to lift the hanging coffin should be the existing lifting machinery at that time, such as the bar used to define the pilot object and scope rod, pulley, windlass, winch, stick and rope

there are many hanging coffins at the junction of Sichuan and Yunnan. The age of hanging coffin burial is very old. From the remains of hanging coffin burial found today, it started from the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period and lasted until the yuan and Ming Dynasties

hanging coffins are also the content that Wang Yifang is most interested in. He teaches philosophy of life and death in the Institute of medical humanities of Peking University. In addition, he is also the deputy director of the expert committee of China Funeral Association. At the seminar, Wang Yifang started from the hanging coffin and believed that the "hanging" of the hanging coffin was both the "hanging" of the hanging coffin and the "hanging" of the pending case. The relevant research in the book not only broke the mystery, but also solved a mystery in Chinese funeral culture. At the symposium, Yin Chuanhong, the general manager of the science popularization times, also cited the inventions with Chinese characteristics, such as hanging coffins, recording drum cars and incense burners, to illustrate the interest, academic value and science popularization significance of ancient mechanical restoration

the quilt incense burner in the Western Han Dynasty never tipped over no matter how it was rolled. Its principle is the same as that of today's gyroscopes

however, Lu Jingyan also mentioned in his book that the specific methods of hanging coffin hoisting in different regions may be different, but it must be emphasized that no matter which method is adopted, the machinery used cannot surpass the era at that time, and must conform to the local objective conditions and be selected according to local conditions. He once wrote a study on hanging coffins in China, which listed the actual methods of raising and placing hanging coffins according to his environment

is Zhang Heng's seismograph, which "disappeared" from the textbook, really a "fake"

in recent years, there has been a lot of discussion on Zhang Heng's seismograph. In the textbook of PEP before 2010, Zhang Heng and his seismograph were introduced. The text says, "scientist Zhang Heng has made an instrument that can determine the direction of earthquakes. It is called a seismograph. This is the earliest seismograph recognized in the world." However, Zhang Heng and seismograph will not be introduced in the 2016 ministry edition and the 2017 unified edition

Zhang Heng and his seismograph were introduced in the textbooks of the old edition of the people's Education Edition

is Zhang Heng's seismograph, which "disappeared" from the history textbook, really a "fake"? Lujingyan pointed out in his book that according to the records in ancient books, the zhangheng seismograph consists of two systems: one is the receiving seismic signal system, which consists of a capital column and eight tracks; The second is the earthquake warning system, which consists of internal organs, faucets, copper balls and toads. Unfortunately, it is difficult to know the details of the mechanism, the core component of the seismograph

many modern scholars have made in-depth research on Zhang Heng's seismograph. As early as the 19th century, Japanese scholars have discussed it. Later, the ideas that had a great impact also included the idea of wangzhenduo restoring the seismograph, the idea of Xi Wen's seismograph, and the idea of China Seismological Bureau restoring the seismograph. Lujingyan said that these assumptions about the working principle of the seismograph all make use of the inertia of objects. From a scientific point of view, they are reasonable and have high academic value. The latter two assumptions are more sensitive. Because the book of the later Han Dynasty provided valuable historical materials for Zhang Heng's creation of the seismograph, about 1700 years earlier than other countries, Joseph Needham called Zhang Heng's invention "the ancestor of the seismograph" and a great achievement

but lujingyan also stressed that seismology is a new independent discipline. Understanding the great achievements of ancient China in seismology can enlighten modern researchers, but the sensitivity of seismometers should not be exaggerated. After analyzing the error of Zhang Heng seismograph, it is found that the Du column can only be tipped according to eight tracks, and there is an included angle of 45 ° between two adjacent tracks. When an earthquake occurs in the direction between two adjacent tracks, the seismograph is difficult to make a correct report. When the direction differs from each track by 22.5 °, the error is the largest. And Zhang Heng seismograph can only report the ground vibration, and can not distinguish whether the vibration is caused by earthquake or other reasons. In addition, only when the earthquake reaches a certain intensity and a certain distance can the seismograph make a report, and the intensity of the earthquake cannot be digitized

what exactly does the "wooden ox and flowing horse" that "can move around without manpower" look like

Dai Wusan recalled his two visits to the war model restored by Lu Jingyan in the Military Museum of the Chinese people's revolution. He believed that the exhibition of the continuation of Chinese civilization over the past few thousand years was not limited to the "four great inventions", but also paid attention to the ancient production and living tools from the perspective of people's livelihood. It was these tools that supported our millennium rich life. Research on material culture in China

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